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楼主  发表于: 2006-05-28 13:47

 医学词汇

文字

一下我发的这些词汇都是麻醉界一位老教授的文稿,希望大家学习一下,有所收获!
A battery of 一组、一套、一批
1.   a battery of new technologies 一批新技术
2.   a battery of tests 一组试验
例: These risk factors can be identified by history, physical examination, chest roentgenogram and a clinically available battery of screening pulmonary tests.
这些危险因素可以通过病史、体检、胸部X片及临床上现有的一组筛选用的肺功能试验来确认。

Be based on …   以…为基础,以…为根据。
1.   The film is based on a novel by D. H. Lawence.
该电影是根据D. H. Lawrence 的小说改编的。
2.   Determination of the severity of acute pancreatitis based on clinical evaluation alone is accurate in only 35-40% of patients.
单独根据临床评估对急性胰腺炎的严重度作出决定, 其准确性仅为35-40%病人。
3.   A number of recommendations published for prevention of nosocomial pneumonia are empiric rather than based on controlled observations.
一些已发表的防止医院内感染的肺炎的建议是以经验为依据而不是依据有对照的观察。
4.   Focal organizing pneumonia is sometimes similar to peripheral lung cancer and T.B. and thus the differential diagnosis must be based on pathology.
局灶性机化肺炎有时与末梢性肺炎和结核相似,因之鉴别诊断必需根据病理。

Basis 基础、根据
1.   What is the basis of / for your opinion?
你的看法有什么根据?
2.   There is no scientific basis for these claims.
这些主张没有科学根据。
3.   This lack of direct myocardial depression is the basis for the widespread use of morphine in patients with cardiac disease.
没有直接的心肌抑制是心脏病患者广泛应用吗啡的基础。
4.   There is not at present a sound basis for selecting on approach over the others.
目前尚没有一个可靠的根据,选择某一个方法而不选其他方法。
5.   Monitoring of cardiac function on a beat-to-beat basis is essential to the patient’s safe transport.
监测每次心跳的心功能是安全运送病人非常重要的。
6.   Basic sciences基础科学
7.   Basic scientist 基础科学家

Baseline (名词 一般用单数)
=在实验中用于比较的基础值或基础状态。
1.   Percent changes from baseline values for each measurement were calculated.
每次测定计算其变化是基础的百分之几。
2.   The blood pressure rose again during intubation to levels similar to the baseline values.           插管期间血压再次上升到 与基础值相似的水平。
3.   After 30 min of steady state conditions, cardiac output, serum ionized calcium and arterial blood gas tensions and pH were measured as baseline values.
经30分钟的稳定状态,测定心输出量,血清离子化钙及动脉血气分压及pH作为基础值。
4.   Patient characteristics at baseline were similar in both groups.
二组病人的基础特征相似。
5.   Blood flow was allowed to return to baseline before the next occlusion was begun.
在开始下一次阻断前让血流回复到基础状态。

behavior (不可数名词) 行为
behavioral   adj
behavioral response to
例 The effects of G-protein and protein kinase inhibitor on the behavioral responses of rats to intradermal injection of capasaicin.
G旦白和旦白激酶抑制剂对大鼠皮内注射capasaicin引起的行为反应的影响。

between ~ among
between 用于2个人/组/事物
among 用丁3个人以上
但即使3个人/组以上 difference后仍跟between
例 There were no differences between the 3 groups with respect to age, weight, gender and baseline hemodynamic variables.
年令、体重、性别及血流动学变数的基值三组间没有差异.
但也有用differences among…
例 No significant differences were found among the three diet groups.
三个饮食组间没有发现有统计学意义的差别。

big~large~great
big 和large多用于实物的大小,big较为口语。医学论文中多用large, big也常用于抽象的含义,但较口语化。
如:big difference, big mistake, big growth, big change, big improvement
great则用于抽象的含义
如:great pleasure, great man 伟人,great scholar 伟大的学者, great happiness, 很快乐, great difficulty 很困难, great care 非常小心, great sorrow 巨大的悲痛
例: Napoleon was not a big man, but he was a great man.
拿坡仑个儿不大, 但他是一个伟人。
Large
1.   In large institution confusion may occur and wrong patient may be operated upon or wrong operation may be attempted.
大医院里可能发生混乱, 如错给病人做了手术,或给病人做错了于术。
The patient exhibited severe respiratory syndrome with poor compliance and a large intrapulmonary shunt and bilateral diffuse opacification of the chest radiograph.
该病人有严重的呼吸征候群,其肺顺应性差,有明显的肺内分流,胸部X线显示弥散性不透光区。
Because extracorporeal oxygenation requires large extracorporeal blood flows (40-90ml/kg/min) large bore drainage cannulae must be used.
因为体外氧合需要很大的体外血流(40-90毫升/公升/分),所以必须用大口径的插管。
Quite a large number of people attended the meeting.
很多人出席会议。
[注] 数量 (amount, number) 前用 large/small 不能用 little/big.
如 Large amounts of money were spent on the study.
该项研究投入了大量的钱。
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1楼  发表于: 2006-05-28 13:47
Great
Excessive sweating may cause great fluid loss.
过度出汗会引起大量液体丧失。
Bibliographic references are held to a minimum because most of the concepts have been discussed in great detail in previous chapters.
参考文献被压 缩到最少,因为前几章已经详细的讨论了大多数概念。
I was most impressed by the great skill and dexterity with which our Chinese colleagues performed these procedures.
我对我们中国同道做这些手术的高度的技巧和熟练印象深刻。      
We found the pump oxygenator to be extraordinarily efficient, reliable, of great capacity and also simple to operate.
我们发现这个泵氧合器非常有效、可靠、容量大、操作简单。
We are all full confident that the conference will be a great success.
我们都有充分的信心,这次会议将会非常成功。
For the average patient undergoing operation a 20 percent reduction in immune function probably poses no great problem.
一般的手术病人免疫功能降低20%问题不大。
It is a great pleasure to have you all here.
你们能来非常高兴。
greater than 2 years = more than 2 years
greater than 8000 cases = more than 8000 cases.

benefit-s (名词)   好处
1.   The potential benefit of aprotinin should be optimal in patients undergoing reoperation and complex surgery.
再次手术及进行复杂手术的病人抑肽酶的可能的好处应该达最佳。
2.   The benefit of intraoperative small-dose ketamine on postoperative pain after anterior cruciate ligament repair.
术中小剂量氯胺酮对前十字韧带修补术后疼痛的好处。
3.   Increased educational exchanges with other countries have been of great benefit to scientific and educational research in China’s institutions of higher learning.
和其他国家在教育方面交流的增加对中国大学的教育研究有很大的好处。

Benefit(动词 及物、不及物)
及物   benefit 某人/某事
1.   This most recent spell of welcome rain is expected to benefit crops growing around Beijing.
最近一阵受欢迎的雨预期对北京周围生长的农作物有好处。
2.   They all try to influence you to benefit themselves.
他们都想影响你而使他们自己得利。
不及物   benefit by …   benefit from …
1.   She has benefited by the operation.
手术使她得益。
2.   The patient benefited from being hospitalized .
该病人得益于住院治疗。
be beneficial for …某事   be beneficial to …某人、健康
In those patients desmopressin may be beneficial for diminishing the blood loss.
Desmopressin 可能有益于使这些病人减少失血。
Nevertheless, moderate cardiac depression by a drug like halothane may be more beneficial to the patient with ischemic heart disease than hypertension and tachycardia produced by a drug such as ketamine.
氟烷那样的药对心脏的适当的抑制比用像氯胺酮那样的药物引起高血压及心动过速对有缺血性心脏病的病人更有好处。
Clinical experience confirms that IPPR is often beneficial to patients in heart failure.
临床经验证实IPPR常对心衰的病人有益。
Fresh air and good food are beneficial to the health.
新鲜空气及良好的食物有益于健康。

Bind   及物动词 结合
1.   Oxygen tension is therefore the driving pressure, whereas the final oxygen content will depend on both plasma’s relative inability to hold dissolved oxygen and hemoglobin’s ability to bind oxygen.
因之氧分压是驱动压而最终的氧含量一方面取决于血浆不再能溶解氧,另一方面取决于血红旦白结合氧的能力。
2.   Because the binding of the neurotransmitter (ligand) to the receptor activates these ion channels, they are called ligand-gated channels to distinguish them from voltage-gated channels. 因为神经递质和受体结合(配位)启动了这些离子通道, 所以他们被称为配位门通道, 以区别于电压门通道。
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2楼  发表于: 2006-05-28 13:48
breathe(不及物动词) 呼吸
Our patients cannot breathe in and out very slowly while air flow and mouth pressures are measured.
我们的病人在测定气流及口腔压时不能很慢地吸气和呼气。
breathe(名词 不可数) 呼吸
Hold your breath 屏气(不要呼吸)

bring about…   引起
Passive hyperventilation of an oxygenated anesthetized patient, which lowers PaCO2 5-10 torr, removes all chemical drive and bring about apnea.
麻醉下充分氧合的病人被动性过度通气使PaCO2下降5-10 mmHg就去掉了所有的化学驱动,从而引起呼吸暂停。

Build-up 蓄积
A build-up of carbon dioxide occurs which leads to a respiratory acidosis.
二氧化炭蓄积导致呼吸性酸中毒。

Burn-s (可数名词) 烧伤
1.   Severe burns, minor burns
烧伤严重与否用severe, minor
2.   烧伤病人=a burn patient
Care of burn patient has improved dramatically over the past 10 to 15 years.
在过去的10至15年烧伤病人的处理有明显的改进。
A burn patient is a trauma patient.
烧伤病人是创伤病人。

by~with
在麻醉论文中 by用于某方式、方法,而with用于工具,药物。
1.   by…assay
Serum lidocaine concentrations were measured by radioimmuno-assay.
用放射免疫测定法测定血清利多卡因浓度。           。
2.   by…method
Anesthesia can be induced by any suitable method.
麻醉可用任何合适的方法诱导。
The vast majority of drugs gain access to their site of action by this method.
绝大多数药物通过这一方法到达作用部位。
3. Cardiac output was measured by thermo dilution.
用热稀释法测定心输出量。
4. Plasma concentrations of ropivacaine were measured by high performance liquid chromatography.
用髙效液相色谱法测定罗哌卡因的血浆浓度。
5. by-ing
These drugs work by reversibly blocking nerve conduction.
这些药物通过可逆性的阻断神经传导起作用。
Blood loss was carefully measured by weighing the sponges and determining the volume of shed blood in the suction bottle.
仔细地秤纱布的重量及确定在吸引并内的失血量来测定失血量。

With
1.   with a microscope
Structural changes in the lung cells were examined with a microscope.
用显微镜检查肺细胞结构的改变。
2.   with a pH meter
All pH values were measured with a Beckman 71 pH meter.
所有的pH值都用Beckman 71型pH计测定。
3.   with a monitor
Inspired and end-tidal isoflurane concentration was monitored with a Puritan-Bennett anesthetic’ agent monitor.
异氟烷的吸入和呼气终末浓度用Puritan-Bennett麻醉剂监测仪监测。
4.   with 某药
Anesthesia was maintained with nitrous oxide 70%, oxygen 30% and isoflurane 0.5 to 3.0%.
麻醉维持用70%笑气、30%氧及0.5-3.0%异氟烷。
5.   with a ventilator
The trachea was intubated and the dog was ventilated with a Harvard ventilator.
该狗行气管内插管并用Harvard呼吸机通气。

Block~blockade (名词)
作阻滞和局麻解时二者同义。
Adrenergic block=adrenergic blockade 肾上腺素能阻滞
Motor block / blockade is assessed using Bromage scoring system.
运动神经阻滞用Bremage计分法评估。
但block用得较多
block可作动词用如 The receptors are blocked.

Bolus   复数为boluses或boli
=单次注射的药量
可说 a bolus of 某药 (boluses of 某药); a bolus dose of某药 (bolus doses of 某药) a bolus injection of 某药 (bolus injections of 某药)
1.   In this study a bolus of esmolol 100 mg (E 100), 200 mg (E 200) or placebo was injected 2 min before intubation.
2.   Boluses of esmolol (100-200 mg) mimimized the sympathetic response to rigid bronchoscopy.
单次剂量的 esmolol (100-200 mg) 减轻交感神经对硬支气管镜检查的反应。
3.   Intubation can be performed more rapidly when a bolus dose of pancuronium is preceded by a small priming dose of metocurine.
在单剂量 pancuronium前先给小剂量 metocurine 予处理, 气管内插管会更快。
4.   Small bolus doses of fentanyl were repeated to maintain reasonable levels of anesthesia.
重复给小剂量芬太尼以维持麻醉在适当的水平。
5.   A single bolus injection of fentanyl 50-60 µg/kg for patients undergoing coronary artery surgery has been reported.
已有报道冠脉手术病人单次注射芬太尼50-60 µg/kg.
6.   Dr. Hung asked the speaker why bolus injections of sufentanil had been used rather than an infusion.
洪医生问报告人为什么用多次单剂量苏芬太尼注射而不用滴注?
7.   Intravenous bolus injections of midazolam 0.05 mg/kg were administered .
多次单剂量midazolam 0.05 mg/kg 静脉注射
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3楼  发表于: 2006-12-13 09:27
Thanks a lot. It's very useful.
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4楼  发表于: 2007-03-06 11:28
多多益善
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5楼  发表于: 2007-05-08 11:30

 招聘医学翻译

本中心为补充翻译人才,现招聘高级翻译及校审,要求硕士以上学历,英语及其它语种水平高,有医学背景,三年以上翻译经验,有意者请发简历至trans@51medtrans.com,或致电010-64205680/1/2
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6楼  发表于: 2007-07-19 11:07
收藏了,感谢楼主